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Countries of Africa

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AFRICAN HISTORY:

Scientists have concluded that it is the origin of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils were found on the continent, some dating back 3.5 million years.

Neanderthal

Early man spread throughout parts of Africa about 1.75 million years ago. They became hunters, lived in caves and used fire. Moreover they developed the ability to create stone tools just to survive. The Neanderthals originated some 210,000 years ago and inhabited regions in northern Africa and across parts of southern Europe. There is clear evidence that they controlled fire, lived in caves, as well as open-air structures of stone and vegetation.

One of the developments of primitive man was the creation of stone tools. By 5,000 BC farming was common in the northern areas of Africa, as people were growing crops and herding livestock. During that time the Sahara Desert was a fertile area.

Egyptian culture 

The Egyptian culture emerged along the lower reaches of the Nile River in 3,200 BC. It was among the earliest civilizations and their tools and weapons were made of bronze. Moreover, they pioneered the building of massive pyramids and temples. Egyptians developed mathematics, irrigation, an innovative system of medicine, agricultural production techniques, writing and the first ships. In short, the Egyptians left a lasting legacy upon the world.

Phoenicians and Rome

Phoenicians were an enterprising maritime trading culture from Lebanon who spread across the Mediterranean sea from 1550 BC to 300 BC. They founded the city of Carthage in 814 BC in what is now Tunisia in Northern Africa. This civilization was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC. Meanwhile, the Egyptians continued to spread their culture across Northern Africa, and kingdoms were created in Ethiopia and Sudan. The Roman Empire continued to expand its influence, and in 30 BC Egypt became a province of Rome; Morocco in 42 AD.

Arabs

The Roman Empire collapsed and the Arabs quickly took their place on the continent. In 698-700 they invaded Tunis and Carthage and soon controlled all of coastal North Africa. The Arabs were Muslims, and most of North Africa converted to Islam; Ethiopia was the exception. Soon kingdoms emerged in Africa; they traded with the Arabs using gold plus a valuable commodity: slaves. One of the first kingdoms was Ghana which is located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. The empire grew rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt, but then lost its power in the 11th century.

Additional kingdoms

Additional kingdoms developed across the continent such as Benin and Mali. Both became rich by trading in gold, horse salt, and of course, slaves. And like most kingdoms before them on any continent, they were invaded and in the end destroyed. Mogadishu,  now largest city in Somalia, was settled by Arabs who traveled and traded on the east coast of Africa. The Arabs' reach extended to Zanzibar, which was used as a base for voyages between the Middle East and India.

As other organized kingdoms were formed in central and southern Africa, the Portuguese began to explore the western coast of Africa. By 1445 they reached the Cape Verde Islands and the coast of Senegal, and the mouth of the River Congo in 1482. They even sailed around the Cape of Good Hope. Africa

Slave trade

The continent-changing 16th Century began with Europeans transporting African slaves to the Americas for profit. A slave purchased on the African coast for the equivalent of 14 English pounds in bartered goods could sell for 45 pounds in the American market.

The best-known method of commerce at the time was called the Triangular Trading System. It involved British and other European countries' manufactured goods which were shipped to Africa, then slaves from there to the West Indies and then sugar and other products back to Europe.

At the same time, Barbary pirates along the North African coast captured thousands of ships. From the 16th to 19th century, an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million people were taken captive as slaves. The pirates' impact on the continent, however, peaked in the early to mid-17th century.

European colonies

As tales of African riches spread north, the Europeans founded their first real colonies in the early 16th century, when the Portuguese settled in what is now Angola. Later, the Dutch founded a colony in what is now South Africa.

Strong movements to end slavery began in the late 18th century. France became one of the first countries to abolish slavery in 1794. Britain banned slave trade in 1807, but it was not officially abolished for good until 1848. In some parts of Africa, slave-like practices continue to this day and have proven difficult to eliminate.

Wholesale colonization of Africa by European countries began in 1814 when the British snatched the Dutch Colony of South Africa. Carved up like a large pie, the Brits, Dutch, French, Germans and Portuguese grabbed all of the available pieces.

By the end of the 19th century, from Algeria to Zimbabwe, and from Botswana to Niger, the continent was now all but controlled by European powers. In the early 20th century the land grab continued as the British took control of Egypt.

Independence

By 1920, the forced occupation of African lands began to sour in Europe, and change was in the wind. Africans were also driven by their passionate desire for independence and the movement for same became unstoppable. By mid-century most of the continent was independent, with Angola finally free in 1975.

Self-government brought more than its share of civil wars, coup d'états and ethnic conflicts to the newly emerged countries. Add to that mix some horrible genocides, along with famines and out-of-control disease (HIV/AIDS), and Africa was teetering on the edge, and in many areas still does today.

Although Africa remains the world's poorest inhabited continent, there are many bright spots in this land of over one billion people and its 2,000 + languages. Significant economic and social gains have taken place over the last few years, with South Africa, Nigeria, Morocco and Egypt leading the way.

The largest segments of modern Africa's economies are agriculture and mining, with tourism growing in some areas. Manufacturing industries have grown large enough to ship products across the planet, and the oil export revenues of Angola, Libya and Nigeria have the potential to change the lives of millions.

Today the 54 countries of Africa have great potential, but this question must be asked: "Can it change soon enough to meet the needs of its people?" We can only hope so.  

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